Agenda Setting

Agenda Setting Theory is a media effects theory that explains how media affects the emphasis viewers place on certain topics happening in society. The ‘catch-phrase’ associated with this theory is that the media does not tell us what to think, it tells us what to think about. Bernard Cohen actually stated this is 1963 referringContinue reading “Agenda Setting”

Cult Media

Cult media is a term that exists through the continuous evolution of its own definition. Although there exists no one fixed definition of cult media, several influential scholars have defined sets of criteria that function as a working definition of cult, which include the overlapping categories of audiences (Jenkins 1992, Janvocivh 2002), knowledge/trivia (Hills 2003,Continue reading “Cult Media”

Encoding/Decoding

The encoding/decoding model of communication is a system that describes how media messages are produced, circulated, and consumed by people in society. The model was developed by Stuart Hall, a cultural studies scholar and theorist, in 1973. Hall was an influential member of the Birmingham School and his creation of encoding and decoding has madeContinue reading “Encoding/Decoding”

Heteronormativity

During the second wave in the 1970s, feminists closed in on what could possibly be the source of women’s oppression (Ingraham, 2017). Chrys Ingraham elaborated on the theory feminists proposed during this time to what is the central fountainhead of women’s oppression :heteronormativity. Ingraham summarizes what most feminists during this time period understood heteronormativity. SheContinue reading “Heteronormativity”

Intersectionality

Intersectionality can be defined as a way to bridge that gap between two or more identity positions. The article “On Black Feminist Thought: Thinking Oppression and Resistance Through Intersectional Paradigm” states: “A significant aspect of critical studies of intersectionality is their relation to power and stratification. What distinguishes black feminist thought is that it isContinue reading “Intersectionality”

The Male Gaze

Laura Mulvey’s theory of the male gaze is based on Freudian constructions of the psyche. Sigmund Freud was a psychologist who developed the practice of psychoanalysis which examines the conscious and unconscious areas of the mind. Mulvey uses psychoanalysis to highlight the patriarchal structure of women in films. A Freudian concept that is present throughoutContinue reading “The Male Gaze”

Media Oligopolies

The term oligopoly, according to Richard Campbell, Christopher R. Martin, and Bettina Farbos in Media and Culture: Mass Communications in a Digital Age, refers to “an organizational structure” in the economic systems of the media, in which “a few firms control most of an industry’s production and distribution resources” (221). This system of complete dominationContinue reading “Media Oligopolies”

Meritocracy

Meritocracy has several definitions, one being “a system structured around advancement of people who are selected on the basis of individual achievement” (Littler, 2018, p. 24). The ideal meritocracy is one where leaders are determined based on the successes they achieved through hard work and perseverance. Although meritocracy has histories all around the world, itsContinue reading “Meritocracy”

Textual Analysis

Textual analysis is a method in cultural and media studies that critically examines and interprets the meanings of culture through texts (Campbell, R., Martin, C. R., & Fabos, B. 2017). Texts can be defined as any “unit of meaning for interpretation and understanding” (Ouellette & Gray, 2017), though cultural studies views texts broadly as anythingContinue reading “Textual Analysis”

Vertical Integration

Vertical Integration is a term that is used to describe a strategy that many businesses use to increase their profits. Vertical integration happens when a company multiplies its production operations and potential into different stages of manufacturing on the same path, such as when a company owns its distributor and/or providers. Vertical integration is extremelyContinue reading “Vertical Integration”