Welcome to Mediums and Messages

Mediums and Messages is a resource site for the study of communication and media studies curated and maintained by the students of Washington College.

The Communication and Media Studies program at Washington College prepares students to become discerning media consumers, critical thinkers, skilled writers, and creative storytellers. This site is maintained by Washington College students to provide critical resources to their peers in order to advance the study of communications and media studies.

To the right there is a list of topics, ideas, and concepts germane to the study of communication and media. Each entry is researched, created, and written by students. Click on the link for the concept you’d like to learn more about.

For more information about the Washington College Communication and Media Studies Program, click here.

Except where otherwise noted, images, sound, and video on this site is licenses under Creative Commons. For more information on Creative Commons, click here

1948 Paramount Decision

The 1948 Paramount Decision is a landmark Supreme Court ruling that came out of the 1948 court case, United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. The case was argued on February 9-11, 1948 and was decided on May 3, 1948. In a 7-1 decision, the Court sided with the United States government stating that the practice of vertical integration by film studios in Hollywood is a monopolistic process, making it therefore unconstitutional and illegal.

In front of the SCOTUS, Attorney General Clark and Assistant Attorney General Sonnett argued for the United States (SCOTUS, 1948). John W. Davis argued for the defendant, Loew’s Incorporation (SCOTUS, 1948). William J. Donovan argued for the case of Radio-Keith-Orpheum Corp. (SCOTUS, 1948). Joseph M. Proskauer argued on behalf of Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc. (SCOTUS, 1948). James F. Byrnes argued the case of Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp. (SCOTUS, 1948). Whitney North Seymour argued the cause for Paramount Pictures, Inc. (SCOTUS, 1948). Louis D. Frohlich argued for Columbia Pictures Corp. (SCOTUS, 1948). George A. Raftery argued for the United States Artists Corp. (SCOTUS, 1948). Thomas Turner Cooke argued for Universal Pictures Co. (SCOTUS, 1948). Thurman Arnold argued for Universal Pictures Co. (SCOTUS, 1948). Finally, John G. Jackson and Robert Barton, Jr. argued for Allred.

Before reaching the Supreme Court, the complaint had charged the defendants with monopolizing the production of films. When the District Court denied the government’s plea, the government then charged the studios for monopolizing on distribution. Once again, the District Court did not believe there was a case here. Finally, the complaint charged the defendants with vertical integration of producing, distributing, and exhibiting major motion pictures. The case eventually moved up to the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Justice William O. Douglas wrote the majority opinion of the 1948 Supreme Court case United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc

The majority opinion was given by Justice William O. Douglas (SCOTUS, 1948). The Court charged the defendants with violations against the Sherman Act, which is an antitrust law passed in 1890 (SCOTUS, 1948). The defendants were divided into three groups. This first group was made up of Paramount Pictures, Inc., Loew’s, Incorporated, Radio-Keith-Orpheum Corporation, Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc., and Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation. This group was known as the five major defendants because they produced, distributed, and owned/controlled theaters (SCOTUS, 1948). The second group was made up of Columbia Pictures and Universal Corporation. These two companies only produced movies and distributed films (SCOTUS, 1948). Finally, the third party was United Artists Corporations who only distributed films (SCOTUS, 1948).

While writing the majority opinion, Justice Douglas considered five different practices that were addressed in the arguments: clearance and runs, pooling agreements, formula deals/master arguments/franchises, block booking, and discrimination (SCOTUS, 1948). Within these five parts of the majority opinion, Justice Douglas revisited past cases and rulings to determine how each defendant had violated one of these categories. After reviewing these facts and going over what the District Court had to say, Justice Douglas decided to let the District Court’s decision stand for a restraint of trade (SCOTUS, 1948). He believed that what the companies were doing was monopolizing and against the law. On formula deals, master arguments, and franchises, Justice Douglas let the District Courts decided a resolution (SCOTUS, 1948). For block booking, Justice Douglas said that this went against copy right law (SCOTUS, 1948). Overall, the majority decision decided that vertical integration was illegal and Hollywood had to change its process by which it did production, exhibition, and distribution.

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Justice Felix Frankfurter wrote the dissenting opinion of the 1948 Paramount Pictures Decision

The dissenting opinion of the SCOTUS was written by Justice Felix Frankfurter. Justice Frankfurter argued that the Court could not rule on the case as they had not examined all the facts provided to them to make an appropriate decision (SCOTUS, 1948). Based on prior court decisions, Justice Frankfurter thought this case should not have been decided by the SCOTUS but by the District Courts. Justice Frankfurter believed that the appropriate venue for this case was the District Court (SCOTUS, 1948).

After the decision was decided, movie studios had to sell their movie theaters, making rent charges increase (SCOTUS, 1948). Paramount Pictures, Inc. was divided into two different companies (SCOTUS, 1948). The movie studio, RKO, was closed (Campbell & Fabos, 2017). Independent producers and studios were able to make more movies (Campbell & Fabos, 2017). This decision effectively brought an end to the “Golden Age of Hollywood” (Campbell & Fabos, 2017).

References

Campbell, R., Martin, C. R., & Fabos, B. (2017). Movies and the Impact of Images. In Media & Culture: Mass Communications in a Digital Age (Eleventh ed., pp. 215-244). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

U.S. v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. 334 U.S. 131 (1948).

Image Attribution: Images used are from the Harris & Ewing collection at the Library of Congress’s Prints and Photographs division and are in the Public Domain.

Written by Jillian Horaneck, 2017

 

 

Banned Books Week

casey 1Each year during the last week of September, libraries and communities work to celebrate Banned Books Week. This week embraces books that have been banned or challenged over the years. “Banned” refers to the selection being taken off the shelf while “challenged” means that someone such as a parent or patron have requested to have the book removed (Petrilli, 2009). This is more common than banning books and happens across the United States. In 1982, Banned Books Week was celebrated for the first time. This was in response to a rise in challenged books across communities (Ballard, 2015). It took off and became an annual event each year.

Casey 2A list is created each year of the most challenged book. The top ten list from 2007’s included, And Tango Makes Three by Justin Richardson and Peter Parnell, The Chocolate War by Robert Cormier, Olive’s Ocean by Kevin Henkes, The Golden Compass by Philip Pullman, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, The Color Purple by Alice Walker, TTYL by Lauren Myracle, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou, It’s Perfectly Normal by Robie Harris and The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky (Petrilli, 2009). Many of these books are popular titles yet have all been deemed not worthy or inappropriate for public consumption by someone or a group in the community. The most popular reasons for challenges include being sexually explicit, containing offensive language, LGBT themes, religious viewpoint and violence (American Library Association, 2013). These are subject claims that people use to justify their value claims.

Casey 3During this week libraries across the United States work hard to celebrate these books. They are supported by the American Library Association and the Freedom to Read Foundation. Some ways they do this is by creating book displays with the challenged books showcased. There are promotions of it on social media platforms such as Facebook. Communities also hold discussions or readings of these challenged book (Ballard, 2015). Community members are encouraged to read these challenged books through these events to from their own opinion.

Banned Books Week is important because it helps prevent censorship of different points of view. Censorship is suppression of ideas and information because a group in power deems them objectionable (American Library Association, 2013). Parents often feel that that removing uncomfortable titles will protect their children (Petrilli, 2009). However, they are infringing on the intellectual freedom rights of others in the community. Intellectual freedom covers the right to seek and gain knowledge from any point of view without restrictions (American Library Association, 2013). Removal of books from community settings prevents the public’s right to gain knowledge without restrictions.

References

American Library Association. (2013, January 3). Free Downloads. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/advocacy/bbooks/bannedbooksweek/ideasandresources/freedownloads

Ballard, S. (2015). The Challenged the Banned & the Filtered. Knowledge Quest, 43(5), 32-37.

Petrilli, K. (2009). Banned Books Week: Celebrating Your (and Your Teens!) Freedom to Read. Young Adult Library Services, 7(4), 4-5

Images Attribution: Artwork courtesy of the American Library Association

Written by Casey Wolhar, 2017

 

 

Collective Intelligence & Modding

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Example of a strategy guide

Collective Intelligence in the realm of video games have been around since the industry’s formation. Collective Intelligence is the collaboration of gamers and fans of video games working together to share a variety of resources that enhance the experience of gaming. This includes but is not limited to strategy guides, walkthroughs, cheat codes, secrets and “Easter Eggs” (small pieces of content hidden throughout the game that may be difficult to find), and modifications (McGonigal 2005). Collective Intelligence can be found in any realm where video games are discussed. Originally, gaming magazines were the primary source of gaming Collective Intelligence, where readers could write in about cheat codes, ask for help with difficult parts of games, as well as discuss their opinions on the games popular at this time (Drayson 2012). This was essentially the sole form of Collective Intelligence from the start of the gaming industry until the early 2000s.

In the early 2000s, the primary forms of Collective Intelligence for strategy and cheat codes shifted towards strategy guides specific towards a singular video game, or into books that were full of only cheat codes for a variety of popular games (McGonigal 2005). Magazines were still prevalent at this time, but their focus primarily shifted towards rating and discussing popular games as well as the gaming industry in general. These magazines are still doing basically the same thing today, however, printed strategy guides and cheat code books became all but nonexistent after the internet changed how gamers interact with each other around 2010. Online strategy guides became easily accessible in a variety of forms, ranging from video walkthroughs, forums, and written walkthroughs. Instead of writing into a magazine or purchasing a book, cheat codes were a few clicks away online.  While the medium in which Collective Intelligence has changed over the years, the goal of enhancing the individual experience of playing video games with assistance and contribution from the larger gaming community has remained the same.

Video Game Modding is a practice that has also been around since the inception of the industry. Modding is the practice of modifying the source code of a video game to improve the experience of playing the game. This includes, but is not limited to, cosmetic changes that don’t change gameplay (altering the appearance of one or many aspects of the game), changing aspects of a game to change the difficulty of the game, or expanding the game by addition of new areas or characters (Drayson 2012). This practice was not very common at the beginning of the video game industries life; it did not enhance the games enough, and for enough people, for arcade owners to invest in modifying games. Modding became a more prevailing part of gaming culture during the console era. It was still a tedious process to download mods onto consoles, but the mods became increasingly available and advanced.

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Example of a mod

However, modding was still not a dominant part of video game culture until the popularization of online gaming, primarily on the gaming site “Steam”. The graphical capabilities of online gaming paired with easy access to source code created an easier way to mod games (Drayson 2012). This ushered in a massive new aspect of gaming culture and Collective Intelligence, as these mods became as discussed about as the games themselves. Community members even began to request mods into their favorite games, causing a market for requested mods. For example, one Steam user made a post in a forum joking about wanting to play as then Presidential Candidate Donald Trump in Rocksteady Studio’s Batman game. A little over a week later, a new mod appeared in Steam’s modification store (a place where users can buy and sell gaming mods) allowing gamers everywhere to play as Donald Trump in game, for a small price. Making cosmetic changes to the game like the example above are the most common form of modding today. This online “Mod Market” has created a new form of Collective Intelligence in gaming, where gamers can discuss new mods, request a specific change they would like to see, and sell their current mods (McGonigal 2005).

References

Drayson, H. (2012). Players Unleashed! Modding The Sims and the Culture of Gaming (review). Leonardo 45(5), 491-493. The MIT Press. Retrieved December 4, 2017, from Project MUSE database.

McGonigal, J. (2005). SuperGaming: Ubiquitous Play and Performance for Massively Scaled Community. Modern Drama 48(3), 471-481. University of Toronto Press. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from Project MUSE database.

Image Attribution: Image #1“Final Fantasy (NES) Super Nintendo Strategy Guide” by Bryan Ochalla is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0; Image #2: “New PC Mod Takes You Beyond Gotham City in Arkham Knight” by BagoGames is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Written by Jacob Gonzalez, 2017.

Commodity-Image System

At its most basic definition, a commodity is an object that is bought or sold in our society. The commodity image system is referring to the process of advertising of these objects and how advertising processes affect our culture. Sut Jhally is a professor at Amherst who wrote “Image Based Culture” in 1990. He says that the idea of a society based in a commodity image system means that the advertising that we create shows us a better life. It leads us to believe that we can receive self-validation from the things that we buy based on the advertiser’s success in convincing us. The things we buy can give us happiness and a better life. He also explains that “the development of tv ensured that images were our primary commercial mode of communication”.  Advertising has taught us to comprehend these images for their benefit as well. The inclusion of more third world countries has contributed to the spread of this system.  (Jhally 1990 + class notes). Later Jhally uses this concept to talk about how the resources in our world are affected (Daniel B. 1999). The example that he uses in the article is of a diamond rings meaning to our portrayal of a relationships value. We have been taught that the diamond is a symbol elizabethof our love for our spouse. However, it is not a natural human concept if not for the advertising that we have created that has taught us that “a diamond is forever”. He highlights the transition from an agrarian society to industrialization which has encouraged the transition in advertising to a commodity image system. (Jhally 1990). This transition has created the commodity image system in which we are surrounded by images of our potential future and dreams which can be achieved by buying the products advertised.

References

Daniel, B. (1999). ADVERTISING AND THE END OF THE WORLD Sut Jhally. The Radical Teacher, (57), 34.

Jhally, S. (1990). Image based culture: advertising and pop culture. The World and I. Article 17591. http://www.worldandilibrary.com.

Image attribution: CCO commons, no attribution needed

Written by Elizabeth Bergstrom, 2017

Communications Act of 1934

The Communications Act of 1934 was passed on June 19, 1934, during the presidency ofmax Franklin D. Roosevelt. The means of this Act was for the Government to regulate telephone, telegraph, radio and other broadcasting forms for the public. Through this Act, the United States Government demanded that those licensed to broadcast do so with the intent of, “public interest, convenience, and necessity.” coming directly from the Act (M.G.F 1935). The Communications Act of 1934 also created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), which replaced the Federal Radio Commission.

The Communications Act of 1934 is broken down into six main sections. The first section of this Act includes the creation of the FCC, along with the purpose of creating the Act. Quoted from the first section on the Communications Act of 1934, this section is “For the purpose of regulating interstate and foreign commerce in communication by wire and radio so as to make available, so far as possible, to all the people of the United States…” (United States, 1989). This meant that public information was going to be rapidly spread throughout the United States with the help of the new broadcasting standards implemented.

The second section of the Act deals with the common carrier regulations. This created a set of requirements providers had to abide by when providing telecommunication services, along with a competitive market between providers, making the costs of services lower for consumers. The third section pertains to radio communication and defining wired communication. This gave licensing rights to broadcasting stations from the government. Finally, the last three sections all deal with procedural provisions and penalties for controlled agencies if they do not follow their rules and regulations, as well as miscellaneous information to bring the Communications Act of 1934 to a close (M.G.F. 1935).

max 2Hurwitz (1991) describes just how important the Communications Act of 1934 really is for America. He claims that the Act stayed around through the entire technology revolution, mostly in part to its flexibility. The Act gives power to the Federal Communications Commission, but in very loose terms. For example, the quote, “public interest, convenience, and necessity” has a very broad meaning, which allows them to expand on it, under reasonable terms. Not having a clear definition of this phrase caused courts and other officials to argue that it would be unconstitutional for the government to use its licensing power without a clearly defined definition (Brotman, 2017). This also means that the Act is not constricted in any way, which allowed the document to be amended if need. Creating this Act gave the government a basic outline for later acts to come such as the Telecommunications Act of 1996.

The Communications Act of 1934 played a significant role in American society with the communications networks expanding. While these networks expanded, the Federal Communications Commission’s influence expanded alongside. The largest role that the Communications Act of 1934 played on the American people was accessible media throughout the country, and the rapid spread of it through public broadcasting services, which were overlooked by the government. Lastly, it made media and news affordable to all people by creating competition between service providers, in an effort to not leave anyone out (Brotman, 2017).

References

Brotman, S. N. (2017). Revisiting the broadcast public interest standard in communications law and regulation. Retrieved December 07, 2017, from https://www.brookings.edu/research/revisiting-the-broadcast-public-interest-standard-in-communications-law-and-regulation/

Hurwitz, L. (1991). The Journal of American History, 77(4), 1469-1470. doi:10.2307/2078442

M. G. F. (1935). Communications Act of 1934. Virginia Law Review, 21(3), 318-325. doi:10.2307/1067097

United States. (1989). Compilation of the Communications Act of 1934 and related provisions of law: including Communications Act of 1934, Communications Satellite Act of 1962, selected provisions from the United States Code. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.

Image Attribution: The images used in this post are in the Public Domain

Written by Max Hammond, 2017

Conflict-Orientated Journalism

Conflict oriented journalism is a term that exists through the continuous evolution of newspapers. Conflict oriented journalism is one of 8 approaches to journalism used in today’s newspapers. It is more of a modern journalistic approach that is more commonly used in today’s newspapers. This type of journalism is defined as front-page news that is often defined primarily as events, issues, or experiences that deviate from social norms (Campbell 2017). Conflict journalism differs from consensus journalism because consensus focuses more on local news, and presents information on issues that are not as big or worthy of national attention. Under conflict oriented journalism, journalist see their role not merely as natural fact gathers but also as observes who monitor their city’s institutions and problems (Campbell 2017).

Conflict oriented journalism is only found in regional and national newspapers. This is the front-page news that deviates from social norms because this type of journalism talks about events and issues that can have an impact on everyone in a region, or is a topic that is large enough that can have a significant effect on a whole nation. For example, major news companies such as The Baltimore Sun, The New York Times, The LA Times, and the Post-Gazette are all newspapers companies that cover large, significant events and issues that deviate from social norms. These newspaper companies publish articles that are usually more important to society. For example, conflict oriented journalism articles will discuss major political news, natural disasters, and even the major sports stories. There will not be many articles on local school stories, local roads, or stories about events that are taken place in a small community. Conflict oriented journalism, as modern newspapers, believe their role in large cities is to keep a wary eye fixed on recent local and state intrigue and events (Campbell 2017).

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 This photo by Matt York was taken on Oct. 1, which shows members of the 49ners kneeling before their game against the Arizona Cardinals

Conflict oriented journalism is found in major newspaper companies, but the journalist who make up these articles are journalist who aim at presenting an issue to the public, and allow them to pick a side in whatever the issue is. The journalist in conflicted oriented journalism disengage themselves and leave out their opinion on the specific matter. This results in allowing a reader to choose how he or she would like to pick what they believe is right. Conflict oriented journalism is so wide spread because it shares and discusses national and international coverage. By having the ability to share events and issues on national and international news suggests that there are only a small group of these major newspaper companies that have this type of popularity.

Conflict oriented journalism is seen in Liam Dillon’s article called, “Majority of Californians disagree with President Trump’s handling of NFL protests”. Dillion’s article talks about the protests that have been occurring during the national anthem before NFL games by African American players. The NFL protest was started by Colin Kaepernick over a year ago, who is a former quarterback for the San Francisco 49ers.

The issue that is being highlighted by Dillion is that NFL players want to have freedom to protest and fight for racial inequality and police brutality. On the other side, Dillion (2017) shares President Trump feelings about NFL players protesting. These two sides of the issue portray conflict oriented journalism because the journalist talks about the two different viewpoints, and allows the reader to choose which one they believe in. For NFL players, kneeling during the national anthem is bigger than football. For players, it’s about equality, and stopping police brutality on African Americans. According to a poll, it found 38% opposed and 33% supported (Dillon 2017). The poll highlights that many people were against players kneeling during the anthem. These same people feel the players are showing disrespect to the American flag. Players have announced that kneeling has nothing to do with disrespecting the flag, but kneel to support the campaign against social injustices (Dillon 2017).

Kaepernick, along with other players, feel there is no point in standing if Americans don’t go by what the lyrics in the national anthem say. For players, it’s all about justice and equality for African Americans. President Donald Trump had a different approach to the protest. He made it clear that he completely opposed NFL players kneeling during the national anthem before games. President Trump took to twitter, and elevated this issue during a political rally when he called on the NFL commissioner to fire any player who didn’t stand during the anthem, arguing the protests were offensive (Dillon 2017). Trumps comments on the protest caused a major divided between blacks and some whites. Bob Shrum, director of the Jesse Unruh Institute of Politics at USC, said blacks feel very strongly about this. Republicans have taken the lead from Trump and they feel strongly about it. And overall, you have people very much divided (Dillon 2017). President Trump had not only bashed NFL players for protesting, but he also divided the country by leading republicans to believe what he thought was right.

Some disagreed with President Trumps handling on the protests. However, others in America agreed with his tactics. Dillion (2017) explained how 57 percent of those surveyed believed Trump should have never acted this way towards NFL players. Only 18% of Americans supported President Trumps beliefs in calling out NFL players (Dillon 2017). This poll suggests that no matter what he says, Trump will always have a following behind him. Throughout the 2017-18 NFL season, players have continuously protested the national anthem, with an increase in white players kneeling as well. However, there has still been a significant divide between President Trump and NFL players. Dillon presents the facts and issues, explaining President Trumps side, and the NFL players side. Conflict oriented journalism is so important because it allows readers to choose which side of an issue they want to take, without having the personal opinions of the journalist.

References

Campbell, R., Martin, C. R., & Fabos, B (2017). Media & Culture: Mass Communication in a Digital Age 11th Edition. 251-286. Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Dillon, L. (2017, November 12). Majority of Californians disagree with President Trump’s handling of NFL protests. Retrieved December 06, 2017, from http://www.latimes.com/politics/la-pol-ca-nfl-protests-poll-20171112-story.html

Image Attribution: The image used in this post is from Matt York and the Associated Press.

Written by G. Austin Allen, 2017

Consensus-Orientated Journalism

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Chestertown, Maryland’s local newspaper

Consensus oriented journalism is generally found in smaller local newspapers. This particular type of journalism in usually found in small communities, newspapers that promote social and economic harmony by providing community calendars, and meeting notices (Campbell 2017, Martin 2017, Forbes 2017). Also, some of these articles talk about local schools, social events, town government, property crimes, and zoning issues (Campbell 2017, Martin 2017, Forbes 2017). Similar to an earlier time in American History, small newspapers are sometimes owned by business leaders who may also serve as local politicians (Campbell 2017, Martin 2017, Forbes 2017). Consensus oriented journalism papers have a small advertising base, so they are generally careful not to offend local advertisers (Campbell 2017, Martin 2017, Forbes 2017). They do not want to offend the local advertisers, because they finance a lot of the costs for these papers. The goal of these papers is to foster a sense of community, but at their worst, they overlook or downplay discord and problems.

For example, in an article written by the Chestertown Spy titled “Dickens of a Christmas” (Spy Desk 2017) The article talks about the excitement of bringing Victorian London and the spirit of Charles Dickens’ timeless tale, “A Christmas Carol”. This article would be considered consensus oriented journalism, because it is in a local newspaper, the topic is on a social event, and the article brings social harmony and excitement to the community.

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UMD’s campus newspaper

Furthermore, in an article titled “UMD Graduate Student Government elects new president after impeaching the last one” in the Diamondback Newspaper, which is University of Maryland’s newspaper (Fortson 2017). They talk about a meeting that took place in order to find a new president, after the first president was caught misusing the funds. They student government body elected Michael Goodman a second-year doctorate student as their new president. This would be considered consensus oriented journalism because the article is in a relatively small newspaper. Also, because the article talks about meeting that was held, and everyone in the meeting agreed that there had to be a new president put in place immediately.

In conclusion, consensus oriented journalism is generally found in small local newspapers that promote social and economic harmony. Usually, these articles support their advertisers’ beliefs because they do not want to lose the funding that is coming into the newspaper, so it is not shut down. Sometimes these newspapers are also owned by business leaders, therefore, the beliefs of the owners are also taken into consideration when it comes to writing an article. The goal of these articles is to come up with a general consensus on a topic and write a positive article regarding it. These articles also are typically written about local schools, sporting events, town meetings, zoning issues, town government, and also property crimes. Consensus oriented journalism is a good way to get the majorities opinion across to an entire community, and to let people know what is happening in the community.

References

Campbell, R., Martin, C. R., & Fabos, B. (2017). Media & culture: mass communication in a digital age. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, Macmillan Learning.

“Dickens of a Christmas” Brings Victorian Fun Dec. 1-3. (n.d.). Retrieved December 05, 2017, from http://chestertownspy.org/2017/12/01/dickens-of-a-christmas-brings-victorian-fun-dec-1-3/

Noah Fortson “UMD Graduate Student Government elects new president after impeaching the last one.” Retrieved December 06, 2017, from http://www.dbknews.com/2017/12/04/umd-gsg-president-new-impeach-elect/

Image Attribution: Both images used in this post are in the Public Domain

Written by Shane Silk, 2017